Closing Chrome and opening it back up works, but that's really inconvenient.
I'm still not sure why this happens, but I do have a quick (and convenient) fix: change your compositor (and then change it back). Why does this work? I'm not sure, but since it's obviously a rendering problem, making a rendering change makes sense.
Step by step:
- Open "System Settings".
- Open "Display and Monitor".
- Go to "Compositor".
- Change "Rendering backend" from whatever it is to something else (usually "OpenGL 3.1" to "OpenGL 2.0" or vice versa).
- Click "Apply".
This always solves the problem for me. You can even switch it back to the original value after you hit "Apply" the first time.